Traditional Universalist Perspective: family therapy was white male family therapy – invented by white men, whose theories implicitly defined “family” to mean intact, middle-class, heterosexual, white families, organized with the man as head of the household and the woman as primary caretaker of all family relationships.
Gender Perspective: Family process board had only one woman. 90s, beginning to present on feminist family therapy.
Cultural Perspective: Cultural issues were and are seen as “special” features of certain families rather than as basic dimensions for understanding all families.
Transforming our vision: all families, not just minorities are seen as embedded in and bounded by class, culture, gender, and race. Aims to meet the needs of all backgrounds
Race, Reality, and Relationships ch 6
Children of color feel trapped behind the walls of an invisible prison. too many of them strive for little and settle for even less because they understand the implicit rules of racial participation. 2 sets of rules: one for Whites and one for them.
The significance of race as an organizing principle in our lives is often marginalized or denied.
Notions about reality: the assumption is that the problem to the solution is to determine who is right and who is wrong. When race and reality are entangled, most interactions tend to become more rigidified and polarized.
Centrality of relationships: it is virtually impossible to exorcise race from relationships.
Racial Stains: individuals from different racial groups are often tainted with suspicion, prejudice, and guardedness before a single word is even spoken. They have to be acknowledged and negotiated before meaningful trustworthy interaction can occur.
The vehicle most often used to facilitate the toleration of differences is silence. this is society’s most used tool when dealing with race.
Implications for family therapists: Therapist should assume an active role in transforming the human condition both within and beyond the walls of therapy.
Become a catalytic agents in breaking the silence – “name” race and actively and proactively promote dialogue
Recognize the healing potential of dialogues – move the interaction from “talk for talk’s sake” to dialogue designed to bridge the differences.
Promote critical racial introspection – promote self-reflection
Ch7 Understanding families in the context of cultural adaptations to oppression
oppression is defined as the systematic suppression and denial of a targeted group’s human and/or civil rights such as the right to speak freely, to assemble peaceably, to be treated equally in employment, housing, and under the law, and to exercise the right to vote and to practice the religion of their choice.
Overt or Covert damage done to couples of color.
African American family construction: Monogamous marriage and various forms of plural marriage have coexisted for thousands of years. Monogamous is ideal.
Monogamous/Married Family: may be expected to take in or assist relatives or the children of relatives because of the success they have achieved. They may experience oppression by the people they love, and obligated to help in some way.
Monogamous blended family: have added stress of maintaining harmonious relationships with the other biological parent of the children and gaining the respect and love of the children of their partner. oppression is experienced by the biological mothers or fathers of their children can directly affect the functioning of these families.
Monogamous/ Married with Parallel Family: husband and wife with children, but the husband then established a relationship with another woman, has children with her, and supports both families. Inside or Official wife, and the Outside wife.